The Liberation of KL Auschwitz

17th Jan 2020

wyzwolenie

27 JANUARY 2020

January 27, 2020 is the day of 27th anniversary of liberation of Auschwitz Concentration Camp. The major international commemoration will take place at the place of former Nazi German Concentration and Extermination Camp Auschwitz-Birkenau in Oświęcim. The motto of this year's event is: 'We have a dark premonition, because we know', which are the words of the former prisoner Załmen Grabowski - a Polish Jew, who was killed during the revolt of Sonnderkommando.

Among many important persons who were invited to attend the ceremony, former prisoners of Auschwitz Concentration Camp will be undeniably the most honoured guests. It is supposed that about 200 of them will be present at the event, including the citizens of Poland, US, Canada, Israel, Australia and other European countries. The invitation was confirmed also by the representatives of numerous European countries, such as Germany, Austria, Spain, Greece, Sweden and United Kingdom, but also Israel and Australia. The schedule of the anniversary include speeches of former prisoners of Auschwitz, the speech of the director of the Auschwitz Memorial Dr. Piotr Cywiński and paying respects to the Victims at the monument in Birkenau. All the individuals as well as the organized groups who have no invitations but wish to participate in the event, will be allowed to get only into sector BI of the former Birkenau camp. After the official part of the ceremony is over, the visitors from the sector BI will be given the opportunity to come closer to the Memorial and pay tribute to the Victims.

EVACUATION

As a result of threatening situation on the East front, on August 1944 Nazis started to prepare liquidation of the camps. From August 1944 by mid-January 1945 about 65 000 male and female prisoners, including almost all the Poles, Russians and Czechs, were evacuated from the KL Auschwitz into the depths of the Third Reich. In the meantime, on the autumn 1944 camp's authorities decided to kill all the workers of Sonnderkommando, since they were eye-witnesses of the Nazi crimes. This decision provoked the famous revolt of Sonderkommando's members, who, being aware of their fate, tried to strike back.

Ultimately on January 17, 1945, when the Soviet army reached Kraków, Germans started the final liquidation of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp, which resulted in evacuation from KL Auschwitz and its sub-camps about 56 000 prisoners. These prisoners were forced to walk in the middle of winter dozens of kilometres to the western parts of Poland. The main evacuation routes of so-called Death Marches led through the Upper and Lower Silesia to Wodzisław Śląski and Gliwice towns, where the prisoners were transported further westwards by rail (in the direction of Austria and Germany). During the evacuation the SS guards shot mercilessly prisoners who tried to escape as well the ones who were too exhausted to follow the group. It can be estimated that even between 9 000 and 15 000 prisoners of KL Auschwitz died during the evacuation operation. However, Nazis managed to evacuate about 100 000 prisoners, who were further abused as slave labourers, as well as a large amount of loot which used to belong to the camp's prisoners.

LIQUIDATION

The next step was covering evidences of German crime. On January 20, 1945 Crematoria II and III were blown up and on January 26 Crematorium V was destroyed as well. On January 23, Canada II warehouse was set on fire. What's more, all the important documents including prisoners' files and registration forms were being burnt. However, the rush was the reason why Nazis failed to destroy all the things which could prove them guilty. At that time in Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II and other sub-camps there were still about 9 000 prisoners (including approximately 500 children), the majority of which were sick and extremely exhausted. These prisoners would certainly not get through hardships of evacuation, so the camp's authorities decided to murder them all. In the end, before the last columns of prisoners left the concentration camp, SS killed in the camp about 700 Jewish prisoners.

Most of the people abandoned in the camp managed to avoid this fate, which proves the great hurry of the escaping Nazis. After the evacuation, the situation of the prisoners left behind in the camp was nothing better that previously. They didn't have access to food and got cold in unheated rooms. For this reason, many of them tried to get into food warehouse on their own. This brave action very often resulted in a painful death from overeating, since famished organisms of captives were not ready for such a great dose of food.

LIBERATION

On the day January 27, 1945, Red Army soldiers stepped into Oświęcim. The troop of 60th Army of 1 Ukrainian Front were the first to reach Auschwitz Concentration Camp. The prisoners greeted the Soviet army, which in fact represented Stalinists regime, as real heroes and liberators. On arrival, the soldiers found about 600 corpses of prisoners who had been shot by SS men during the evacuation of KL Auschwitz as well as of those who died of exhaustion. But fortunately, in the Main Camp, Birkenau and Monowitz sub-camp about 7 000 prisoners lasted until liberation.

Those of them who needed no urgent medical aid were leaving the camp and coming back to their families. However, the majority of the prisoners was taken into custody and placed in provisional field hospitals, which were established on the area of liberated Birkenau camp. These hospitals functioned until October 1945, when most of the patients were discharged home and some of them moved to hospitals in Kraków.

The Procession of The Three Kings

3rd Jan 2020

orszak

After a big New Year's Party on the Market Square in Kraków, where the crowds of citizens and visitors were celebrating until dawn, no one dare say that the New Year 2020 was not welcomed appropriately. However, it is not the end of artistic events in the former capital city of Poland.

Like every year on January 6, the Procession of the Three Kings will go through the streets of Kraków to give their gifts and honour the Baby Jesus. But this year the event will be special, because it takes place for the 10th time! The jubilee procession, whose main theme is 'Miracles, miracles they're announcing!', will get through 3 different routes.

The red procession (called European) leaves from the Wawel Castle and it follows the Star of Bethlehem through Grodzka Street. The green procession, which symbolizes the Asian continent, leaves from Dębniki district and goes through Dębnicki Bridge, Planty Park and Szewska Street, whereas the blue procession (the African one) starts from Matejki Square and continues through Floriańska Street. As the custom is, all the processions eventually will meet on the Main Square, where the Holy Family will be waiting for them.

The Procession of Three Kings will be traditionally accompanied by numerous carol singers, children and youth dressed in costumes of knights and court ladies, musicians, as well as the legendary Lajkonik! The event will be culminated in Christmas play (Jasełka) and carolling on the Main Market Square. The procession will be also the opportunity to raise donations for charity, such as the St. Padre Pio Foundation.

The Procession of the Three Kings is considered as one of the biggest street Christmas pageant in the world. According to the data provided by the organizers, in 2019 this event was held in almost 800 places in Poland and abroad and it was attended by 1,2 million participants. In 2020, the Procession of the Three Kings will take place in 18 locations on different continents.

Krakow Christmas Market

16th Dec 2019

market

Krakow Christmas Market

Located on the Main Market Square in the Old Town, Krakow Christmas Fair is one of the greatest attractions of winter season in Krakow.

This year the Christmas Market operates from November 29th to January 7th, every day from 10:00 am to 8:00 pm. We can proudly boast that Krakow Christmas Market was distinguished by CNN as being among the best 17 Christmas Markets all over the world. It is highly significant, since it was listed right next to New York and Florence Christmas Markets! Krakow Christmas Market is considered an absolutely magic place, especially when made silver by the first snowflakes.

Krakow Christmas Market is an annual, over a 100-year tradition. From the last week of November the square is decorated with hundreds of fairy lights and a massive Christmas tree. Then, half of the Main Square is filled with several dozen (around 80) wooden stalls which offers a variety of unique, regional products. The first category of goods pose handmade Christmas decorations, including hand-painted baubles, wreaths, wax candles and frosted gingerbread men. Availability of cheap antiques and jewellery as well as wooden, porcelain and ceramic articles makes this place a perfect destination to find Christmas gifts! Christmas Market is the only opportunity to try all the regional specialities in one place. The offer includes dumplings (pierogi), grilled smoked sheep cheese (oscypki), a loaf bread with special Polish lard and a pickle, grilled sausages, home-made cakes, multi flavour fudges and nuts roasted in caramel. Along with hot mulled wine with cloves (grzaniec) or honey wine, the proposal seems to be irresistible!

Apart from Christmas shopping, numerous artistic events take place on the Market Square. On the stage located nearby, you can admire live performances of artists singing Christmas carols. Every year on December 5th, Krakow Nativity Scene Contest takes place there. What's more, on Christmas Eve Krakow actors present 'Dziady Polskie' by Adam Mickiewicz Monument to celebrate the name day of this great poet, whereas on December 26th, people gathered around the Christmas tree sing together Christmas carols.

You may also like --> Krakow Christmas Music Concert

Kładka Bernatka

13th Dec 2019

kladka

Kładka Bernatka

Kładka Bernatka (eng. Father Laetus Bernatek Footbridge) is a hiking-biking bridge on Wisła River in Kraków which connects Kazimierz and Podgórze districts.

It is pretty new facility as it was delivered on 30 September 2010, being built on the site of former Most Podgórski (eng. Podgórski Bridge). Kładka Bernatka was named after father Laetus Bernatek - a monk, who at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries contributed to building the Hospital Order of Hospitalliers of St. John Grande in Kraków (pl. Szpital Bonifratrów). The bridge has a structure of 145-metre steel arch, to which two platforms are suspended (one for pedestrians, another for cyclists).

The whole construction weighs over 700 tonnes. Creation of this footbridge has strongly contributed to a cultural, social and touristic recovery of nearby streets on both sides of Wisła River and adjacent parts of the Wisła Boulevards. The most common destinations of the walkers are Rynek Podgórski (eng. Market Square of Podgórze district) and Park Bednarskiego in Pogórze, and Wolnica Square on the side of Kazimierz district.

Kładka Bernatka became another 'bridge of love', being inspired by other famous European Pont des Arts bridge in Paris as well as Polish bridges Most Tumski in Wrocław or Most Poniatowskiego in Warszawa. The idea is that lovers lock on the bridge railing a padlock which has the names or initials, a message of love and the date engraved on it. After that, they throw the key into the water as a sign that their feelings will never change. In this way, Kraków's 'Lovers Bridge' is loaded with hundreds of padlocks on both its sides. Here and there can be seen some destroyed parts of the railing, which presumably is a result of a bold attempt to remove an 'outdated padlock'. Unfortunately, actions like this are the main reason for poor condition of the railings. To repair them, all the padlocks need to be removed. Most certainly these proof of love can't be thrown out, since they are so meaningful for their owners. However, some new ideas come up to create a monument of love, which would be made entirely of the deleted padlocks.

Strolling through the bridge, there's no way not to look up, where the magnificent sculptures designed by Polish artist Jerzy Kędziora can be admired. The exhibition, which has been presented since the autumn 2016, is called 'Between the water and the sky'. Hanging on the ropes, the statues of nine acrobats dangle over the bridge, adding to its charm and making you feel like you were in some theatre. But the delights of this place don't stop here. The bridge offers a panorama of Kraków as well as Wisła River view, and its neighbourhood is rich in welcoming pubs and restaurants on both Kazimierz and Podgórze sides. On the south-east of the footbridge there is a monument of Juliusz Leo – the mayor of Kraków in the years 1907-1915 and an important figure of the city. Kładka Bernatka takes on a special character only after dark, when, highlighted from below, it creates a unique spot and one of the most photogenic object in the area.

The Grunwald Monument

27th Nov 2019

pomnik grunwaldzki na placu matejki w Krakowie

The Grunwald Monument

The Grunwald Monument [Polish: Pomnik Grunwaldzki] is an equestrian statue of the king Władysław II Jagiełło, erected in 1910 according to the project by Antoni Wiwulski and Franciszek Black. Placed on Jan Matejko Square in Kraków, it commemorates the 500th anniversary of the Battle of Grunwald in 1410.

The memorial was founded by the distinguished Polish pianist and future Prime Minister of Poland Ignacy Jan Paderewski, who established it 'for the glory of our forefathers and for brothers for courage' [Polish: 'Praojcom na chwałę braciom na otuchę] which has been engraved on the pedestal. Unfortunately, the Grunwald Monument was demolished in 1939 by Germans, and reconstructed only in 1976, following the design of Marian Konieczny. In front of the statue there is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

On the day of 15 July 1410, on the plains nearby Grunwald village, one of the largest and bloodiest battles in the history of medieval Europe was fought. The allied Polish and Lithuanian forces, which were commanded by the king of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło and the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas, defeated the Teutonic Knights and German chivalry that was united with them. It was a total victory - the power of State of the Teutonic Order was broken and the Jagiełło dynasty was raised to the rank of the most important dynasties in Europe. For these reasons, the Battle of Grunwald is considered to be the most important triumph of Poland in her long and proud history.

The top of the 24-metre memorial is crowned with the statue of the king Władysław Jagiełło on his horse. In his right hand the king holds a naked sword. On the front wall there is a figure of Lithuanian duke Vytautas, who was Jagiełło's cousin, Underneath, dead Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Urlich von Jungingen lies at duke's feet. The east side of the monument presents Polish knights who pick up Teutonic banners from the ground. On the west side, there is a Lithuanian warrior blowing his horn and holding a tied up Teutonic captive. Finally, the back wall of the monument features a Polish peasant who is breaking down his chains as a symbol of victory.

The construction of the memorial took place in the conspiracy, since Kraków was then the part of Austrian partition. At that time, Polish country didn't exist on the map of the world. It can therefore be said that the Grunwald Monument was created ''to lift up the hearts'' of Polish nation. The statue was solemnly revealed on July 15, 1910 at high noon. The ceremony was attended by 150,000 visitors as well as a great number of Kraków's citizens and the speeches were delivered i.a. by the mayor of Kraków Juliusz Leo and the founder of the monument Ignacy Jan Paderewski.

Due to its historical dimension and national importance, the Grunwald Monument was gradually being destroyed during the World War II. Eventually, in 1945 it was blown up with dynamite by the retreating Nazis and the dismantled figures were transported to Germany. Over the following years its place was empty and only on 6 October 1976 the Grunwald Monument was recreated in its former location. Fortunately, because in 2010 Poland was able to celebrate there the next round anniversary of the battle and 100th anniversary of the monument's foundation. Located right behind the Barbican and near Academy of Fine Arts, the monument stands as a symbol of struggle for Polish statehood and another must see position on the map of Kraków.

The Krakow Barbican

18th Nov 2019

Barbakan w Krakowie obok Bramy Floriańskiej

The Kraków Barbican

he Kraków Barbican is the element of medieval city's fortifications. Located in the centre of the Planty Park, just between the St. Florian's Gate and Basztowa Street, it is one of the most precious monuments of Kraków and one of the last remains of defensive structures in Europe.

Barbicans started to be built at the beginning of 15th century. They usually had a form of round, brick constructions which were situated outside the main line of defence and connected to the city walls. The principal role of the barbicans was to defend the main city gate. For this reason the walls of the building were provided with numerous loopholes, which gave the possibility of shooting up the enemies from the top.

The Barbican of Kraków was erected in the years 1498-1499 under the reign of Polish king Jan Olbracht, who feared the attack of Wallachian, Tatarian and Turkish enemies, threatening Kraków at that time. The king himself laid the cornerstone for the construction, whose main function was to protect the main city gate of St. Florian, which it was connected to. Built in the Gothic style in brick and stone, it had seven watch towers. The walls of 3 metres thick, which was surrounded by 30-metre-wide moat, made the barbican extremely difficult to get through.

Being the main northern entrance to the city, Barbican used to co-create the beginning of the famous Droga Królewska [E. the Royal Route]. It led from St. Florian Church, through Barbican, the Florian Gate, Floriańska Street, the Main Square by the Mariacki Church, then down Grodzka, Senacka and Kanonicza streets up to Wawel Castle. Droga Królewska was the historical coronation path as well as the funeral corteges of Polish monarchs. This is the way all the important foreign diplomats trod, and where Polish kings, returning after battles and being welcomed by the crowds of Kraków's citizens, used to come back to Wawel. For this reason Barbican was called The Gate of Glory (Porta Gloriae) of Kraków city.

Nowadays, Barbican stands as a museum and it poses a branch of the Historical Museum of the City of Kraków. It serves as a venue for multiple exhibitions. The 500-year-old fortification also features interesting sport events such as Polish championship in fencing or presentations of knight tournaments and court dances. Barbican is accessible for the tourists, who have the opportunity to get inside the building and become acquainted with the history of Kraków's defensive architecture.

The Krakus Mound

28th Oct 2019

kopiec w Krakowie w słoneczny dzień

The Krakus Mound

In Krakow, there are four separate memorial mounds and the city is a Polish champion in this regard. Two the oldest structures include Krakus Mound and Wanda Mound; then, there is the most popular one - Tadeusz Kościuszko Mound and finally, the youngest and the biggest of them is called after Józef Piłsudski.

Located on the right bank of the Wisła River in the Podgóże district, Krakus Mound (called also Krak Mound) is not only the oldest preserved objects of its kind in Kraków but also the biggest prehistoric mound in Poland. This 16m high construction was truly of a great importance, which is proven by the fact that it was visible from the Wawel Castle so that the kings, taking important decisions in Poselska Hall, could look at the mound through the window and be reminded of the greatness of their predecessor - the King Krakus.

According to the Polish chronicler Jan Długosz, the mound was built by two sons of Krakus as a grave for their deceased father. King Krakus, known also as Krak or Gracchus, was a legendary founder of Krakow, known for its righteousness and, if you believe the legend, he lived in 8th century AD. If you are interested what did Krak look like, you should see the sculpture of the king made by Franciszek Kalfas which can be found in the courtyard of National Archives on Sienna 16. After Krak's death, his daughter Wanda became his successor and this is she whom the second mound is dedicated to.

There is a great probability that Krakus Mound functioned as a place of pagan worship, since Krakus Mound, Wawel Hill and Wanda Mound create together an isosceles triangle. In addition, the recent archaeological works revealed there the remains of 300-year-old oak's roots - the tree which used to grow on the top of the mound and was cut down shortly after Poland had been baptised. For this reason it can be assumed that the oak was connected with the pagan cult taking place on the mound. In this sense there is a strong similarity between the Krakus Mound and other archaic constructions such as Stonehenge.

In contrast, nowadays the Krakus Mound functions as a recreational spot which seems to be perfect for afternoon walks. It is a popular target for couples in love who want to spend some time in nature. Besides, Krakus Mound is a great touristic destination, as it provides a wonderful panoramic view of the city. It is definitely worth to visit the mound and climb up to the top of it, which gives a golden opportunity to admire a breathtaking scenery of Krakow, including the Old Town, Płaszów and the Liban Quarry with the remains of the scenery for Steven Spielberg's film 'Schindler's List'.

(photo: Magiczny Kraków)

Plac Nowy (The New Square)

17th Oct 2019

Plac Nowy na Krakowskim Kazimierzu w Krakowie z lotu ptaka

Plac Nowy

Plac Nowy (eng. The New Square), also called the Jewish Square, is the very heart of Kazimierz district. Surrounded by the Nowa, Beera Meiselsa, Warszauera and Estery streets, it is one of the most original marketplaces of Poland.

On the north side of the square, extending along defensive walls of Kazimierz, there are the houses once belonged to the Jewish hospital near the Kupa Synagogue From the end of 16th to the mid 19th century, the area of Plac Nowy was the part of Jewish town, called Libuszhof. This is where the paths of the inhabitants of Kazimierz used to cross. Today's constructions around the square took shape mostly in the years 1870-1923 and from the 1900 this area has been serving as a marketplace.

The central point of Plac Nowy is the Okrąglak (Rotunda) with the hole-in-the-wall food hatches. Okrąglak was built in 1900 as a market hall. In 1927 the building was leased to Jewish Community and it was transformed into a ritual poultry slaughterhouse, which was liquidated only during the German occupation. After the World War II, the Okrąglak again started to serve as a market hall. Currently, in its walls there are fast food windows located. This is exactly where you can taste the best 'zapiekanki' in the whole Kraków. Being of enormous size, they are really unmatched. If you do not believe, you can just look at the endless queue of hungry people waiting to get them. But it is worth to wait! Plac Nowy is the place where yearly concerts of Krakow Jewish Festival take place – and they are performed on the Okrąglak's roof. In 2008, the building was entered into the register of historical monuments of Kraków.

From early morning hours in Plac Nowy merchant stalls offer a variety of goods, including fresh vegetables, food and industrial products. On every Saturday a flea market takes place there, which attracts collectors from the whole Poland as everyone can find various precious antiquities (like old books and jewellery). In addition, on Sundays for the past few decades a clothing market has been carried out there. It is a great opportunity to search out an original second-hand outfit and do not lose a fortune. The square of Plac Nowy is surrounded by numerous lovely bars and cafes which allude to the magical atmosphere of old Kazimierz.

photo: Jan Graczyński

Wawel Dragon Statue

2nd Oct 2019

smoczek

Wawel Dragon Statue

Wawel Dragon Statue is a longtime symbol of Kraków. The six-metre monument, being a major tourist attraction of the city, is dedicated to a beast from popular local legends.

According to the oldest story, in the 12th-century Kraków there was a dragon who terrified the residents of the city for years. To avoid casualties, local people used to feed the dragon with their own cattle, which resulted in financial losses. Then Krakus, who was the king of Poland and founder of Kraków city, decided to disembarrass his people and ordered his two sons – Lech and Krakus II - to kill the monster. The young men, being aware of the predominance of the dragon, came up with a clever idea. At feeding time, they put in front of the dragon's lair a calf skin which was staffed with brimstone. The creature, unaware of the deceit, ate up the whole meal and immediately rushed to the nearest water point which was the Wisła River. Unable to quench thirst, the Wawel Dragon was drinking the water uncontrollably until it consumed half the river and its enormous stomach exploded. In this way the royal sons rescued inhabitants of Kraków from the cruel monster. In later versions of the legend, this brave feat is credited to a poor cobbler Skuba, who, as a reward, won the hand of king's daughter.

No matter which variant of this story is closer to the truth, the dragon located at the foot of Wawel Hill since 1972 is to remind us of these legendary events. The Dragon Statue, designed by the local artist Bronisław Chromy, breathes real fire every 10 minutes, which brings a smile on the faces of visitors. Contrary to popular belief, the creature has seven heads, not just one, that most of the people don't know about, assuming that the smaller heads are its limbs. Literally every tourist wants to take a souvenir photo with the Wawel beast!

The dragon motif is so popular that even the street leading towards the castle is called Smocza [Eng. Dragon Street] and every year on June there is the famous Great Dragons Parade taking place on the streets of Kraków. Having seen the statue, it is worth to visit also the Dragon's Lair, which is situated nearby on the bank of the Wisła River. The chamber, that used to be home to the dragon, is available for tourists from the second half of April until the end of October, from 10:00 to 19:00. You can purchase the tickets by the entrance for 5zł. Enjoy yourself! :)

Schindler's Factory

19th Sep 2019

Schindler's Factory Gate

Schindler's Factory

Oskar Schindler's Deutsche Emailwarenfabrik (DEF), widely known as Schindler's Factory, is one of the most important place to visit during your stay in Krakow, especially when you are interested in World War II.

You cannot miss learning the real history of a man who, being a German under Nazi occupation, saved the lives of over a thousand Jewish people. So-called Schindler's Factory was established two years before the Second World War by the three Jewish businessmen. However, in March 1939 it gave up its production and three months later it had to go bankrupt. As a result, on November 1939 a Suden German industrialist Oskar Schindler (1908-1974) took over the factory. Before the war, Schindler was famous for his interest in making quick money, drinking, and love affairs. When the German occupation started, he moved to Kraków in search of business opportunities.

Being a member of a Nazi party NSDAP and most probably also an associate of German Abwehr, Oskar Schindler managed to make a fortune of his Enamel Factory. The works produced enamelled dishes, pots and spoons, and from 1943 also arms related products including mess kits and artillery shells and fuses for the Wehrmacht

Initially, Schindler employed Jews for economic reasons – they were just free labour force. Actually, it was a common practice applied by many industrialists like Volkswagen, Bayer and IG Farben to profit from low-paid Jewish workers. But ghetto liquidation and resulting from this cruel deportations made Schindler aware that Jewish community is in trouble and he himself, being the owner of a prosperous company, is able to help them. Providing his Jewish workers with Kennkarte could save them from deportations and transports to death camps. Thanks to his good connections and bribery, Oskar Schindler got permission to create on the territory of his factory a subcamp of Płaszow labour camp, so that his employees were allowed to move there. In this way, the Jews could avoid the certain death in Auschwitz after the Krakow ghetto was liquidated on March 1943. Thus, the Schindler's Factory became a shelter for the elders, the sick and children, who entered in a so-called Schindler's List. Afterwards, when faced with losing the war the Nazis started to prepare for evacuation and liquidated the subcamp in Enamel Factory, Oskar Schindler established an ammunition factory in Brünnlitz (Czech Republic) and hired 'his Jews' there. Through his bravery and empathy, Oskar Schindler managed to save about 1 100 Jewisch people sentenced to death. In 1962, he was declared a Righteous Gentile by Yad Vashem and after his death in 1974, Schindler was buried in Israel at the Catholic cemetery on Mount Zion, as he had wished.

Today the former administrative building of Oskar Schindler's Enamel Factory houses the Schindler's Factory Museum which is the department of Historical Museum of the City of Krakow. The permanent exhibition presented there, entitled 'Kraków under Nazi Occupation 1939-1945', tells the story of the factory at Lipowa Street 4 in a broader historical context, including Krakow and both its Polish and Jewish inhabitants during World War II. The exposition has been divided into a dozen parts devoted to individual issues: the World War II, the role of Krakow as power centre of General Government, everyday life of Krakow residents during the war, the fate of Krakow's Jews, the Polish Secret State and also the story of Oskar Schindler, his workers as well as the German occupiers. The Schindler's Factory Museum was officially opened on 10 June 2010. The story of Oscar Schindler and his employees was firstly described by an Australian writer Thomas Keneally in his novel 'Schindler's Ark', whereas in 1993 Steven Spielberg made it into a movie - a world-famous 'Schindler's List', which was shot mostly in Poland.

(photo: Magiczny Krakow)
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